The Ultimate Guide to VBA String Functions

VBA String Functions

Quick Guide to String Functions

String operationsFunction(s)
Append two or more stringsFormat or "&"
Build a string from an arrayJoin
Compare - normalStrComp or "="
Compare - patternLike
Convert to a stringCStr, Str
Convert string to dateSimple: CDate
Advanced: Format
Convert string to numberSimple: CLng, CInt, CDbl, Val
Advanced: Format
Convert to unicode, wide, narrowStrConv
Convert to upper/lower caseStrConv, UCase, LCase
Extract part of a stringLeft, Right, Mid
Format a stringFormat
Find characters in a stringInStr, InStrRev
Generate a stringString
Get length of a stringLen
Remove blanksLTrim, RTrim, Trim
Replace part of a stringReplace
Reverse a stringStrReverse
Parse string to array Split



Using strings is a very important part of VBA. There are many types of manipulation you may wish to do with strings. These include tasks such as

  • extracting part of a string
  • comparing strings
  • converting numbers to a string
  • formatting a date to include weekday
  • finding a character in a string
  • removing blanks
  • parsing to an array
  • and so on

The good news is that VBA contains plenty of functions to help you perform these tasks with ease.

This post provides an in-depth guide to using string in VBA. It explains strings in simple terms with clear code examples. I have laid it out so the post can be easily used as a quick reference guide.

If you are going to use strings a lot then I recommend you read the first section as it applies to a lot of the functions. Otherwise you can read in order or just go to the section you require.


Read This First!

The following two points are very important when dealing with VBA string functions.


The Original String is not Changed

An important point to remember is that the VBA string functions do not change the original string. They return a new string with the changes the function made. If you want to change the original string you simply assign the result to the original string. See the section Extracting Part of a String for examples of this.


How To Use Compare

Some of the string functions such as StrComp() and Instr() etc. have an optional Compare parameter. This works as follows:

vbTextCompare: Upper and lower case are considered the same

vbBinaryCompare: Upper and lower case are considered different

The following code uses the string comparison function StrComp() to demonstrate the Compare parameter


Sub Comp1()

    ' Prints 0  : Strings match
    Debug.Print StrComp("ABC", "abc", vbTextCompare)
    ' Prints -1 : Strings do not match
    Debug.Print StrComp("ABC", "abc", vbBinaryCompare)

End Sub

You can use the Option Compare setting instead of having to use this parameter each time. Option Compare is set at the top of a Module. Any function that uses the Compare parameter will take this setting as the default. The two ways to use Option Compare are:

1. Option Compare Text: makes vbTextCompare the default Compare argument

Option Compare Text

Sub Comp2()
    ' Strings match - uses vbCompareText as Compare argument
    Debug.Print StrComp("ABC", "abc")
    Debug.Print StrComp("DEF", "def")
End Sub

2. Option Compare Binary: Makes vbBinaryCompare the default Compare argument

Option Compare Binary

Sub Comp2()
    ' Strings do not match - uses vbCompareBinary as Compare argument
    Debug.Print StrComp("ABC", "abc")
    Debug.Print StrComp("DEF", "def")
End Sub

If Option Compare is not used then the default is Option Compare Binary.

Now that you understand these two important points about string we can go ahead and look at the string functions individually.

Go back to menu


Appending Strings

VBA String Functions - Smaller

ABC Cube Pile © Aleksandr Atkishkin |

You can append strings using the & operator. The following code shows some examples of using it

Sub Append()

    Debug.Print "ABC" & "DEF"
    Debug.Print "Jane" & " " & "Smith"
    Debug.Print "Long " & 22
    Debug.Print "Double " & 14.99
    Debug.Print "Date " & #12/12/2015#

End Sub

You can see in the example that different types such as dates and number are automatically converted to strings. You may see the + operator being used to append strings. The difference is that this operator will only work with string types. If you try to use it with other type you will get an error.

    ' This will give the error message:  "Type Mismatch"
    Debug.Print "Long " + 22

If you want to do more complex appending of strings then you may wish to use the Format function described below.

Go back to menu


Extracting Part of a String

The functions discussed in this section are useful when dealing with basic extracting from a string. For anything more complicated you might want to check out my post on How to Easily Extract From Any String Without Using VBA InStr.


Leftstring, lengthReturn chars from left sideLeft("John Smith",4)
Rightstring, lengthReturn chars from right sideRight("John Smith",5)
Midstring, start, lengthReturn chars from middleMid("John Smith",3,2)

The Left, Right, and Mid functions are used to extract parts of a string. They are very simple functions to use. Left reads characters from the left, Right from the right and Mid from a starting point that you specify.

Sub UseLeftRightMid()

    Dim sCustomer As String
    sCustomer = "John Thomas Smith"

    Debug.Print Left(sCustomer, 4)  '  Prints: John
    Debug.Print Right(sCustomer, 5) '  Prints: Smith

    Debug.Print Left(sCustomer, 11)  '  Prints: John Thomas
    Debug.Print Right(sCustomer, 12)  '  Prints: Thomas Smith

    Debug.Print Mid(sCustomer, 1, 4) ' Prints: John
    Debug.Print Mid(sCustomer, 6, 6) ' Prints: Thomas
    Debug.Print Mid(sCustomer, 13, 5) ' Prints: Smith

End Sub

As mentioned in the previous section, VBA string functions do not change the original string. Instead, they return the result as a new string.

In the next example you can see that the string Fullname was not changed after using the Left function

Sub UsingLeftExample()

    Dim Fullname As String
    Fullname = "John Smith"

    Debug.Print "Firstname is: "; Left(Fullname, 4)
    ' Original string has not changed
    Debug.Print "Fullname is: "; Fullname

 End Sub

If you want to change the original string you simply assign it to the return value of the function

Sub ChangingString()

    Dim name As String
    name = "John Smith"

    ' Assign return string to the name variable
    name = Left(name, 4)

    Debug.Print "Name is: "; name

 End Sub

Go back to menu


Searching Within a String

InStrString1, String2Finds position of stringInStr("John Smith","h")
InStrRevStringCheck, StringMatchFinds position of string from endInStrRev("John Smith","h")

InStr and InStrRev are VBA functions used to search through strings for a substring. If the search string is found then the position(from the start of the check string) of the search string is returned. If the search string is not found then zero is returned. If either string is null then null is returned.


InStr Description of Parameters

InStr() Start[Optional], String1, String2, Compare[Optional]

  • Start As Long[Optional – Default is 1]: This is a number that specifies the starting search position from the left
  • String1 As String: The string to search
  • String2 As String: The string to search for
  • Compare As vbCompareMethod : See the section on Compare above for more details


InStr Use and Examples

InStr returns the first position in a string where a given substring is found. The following shows some examples of using it

Sub FindSubString()

    Dim name As String
    name = "John Smith"

    ' Returns 3 - position of first h
    Debug.Print InStr(name, "h")
    ' Returns 10 - position of first h starting from position 4
    Debug.Print InStr(4, name, "h")
    ' Returns 8
    Debug.Print InStr(name, "it")
    ' Returns 6
    Debug.Print InStr(name, "Smith")
    ' Returns 0 - string "SSS" not found
    Debug.Print InStr(name, "SSS")

End Sub


InStrRev Description of Parameters

InStrRev() StringCheck, StringMatch, Start[Optional], Compare[Optional]

  • StringCheck As String: The string to search
  • StringMatch: The string to search for
  • Start As Long[Optional – Default is -1]: This is a number that specifies the starting search position from the right
  • Compare As vbCompareMethod: See the section on Compare above for more details


InStrRev Use and Examples

The InStrRev function is the same as InStr except that it searches from the end of the string. It’s important to note that the position returned is the position from the start. Therefore if there is only one instance of the search item then both InStr() and InStrRev() will return the same value.

The following code show some examples of using InStrRev

Sub UsingInstrRev()

    Dim name As String
    name = "John Smith"

    ' Both Return 1 - position of the only J
    Debug.Print InStr(name, "J")
    Debug.Print InStrRev(name, "J")

    ' Returns 10 - second h
    Debug.Print InStrRev(name, "h")
    ' Returns 3 - first h as searches from position 9
    Debug.Print InStrRev(name, "h", 9)

    ' Returns 1
    Debug.Print InStrRev(name, "John")

End Sub

The InStr and InStrRev functions are useful when dealing with basic string searches. However, if you are going to use them for extracting text from a string they can make things complicated. I have written about a much better way to do this in my post How to Easily Extract From Any String Without Using VBA InStr.

Go back to menu


Removing Blanks

LTrimstringRemoves spaces from leftLTrim(" John ")
RTrimstringRemoves spaces from rightRTrim(" John ")
TrimstringRemoves Spaces from left and rightTrim(" John ")

The Trim functions are simple functions that remove spaces from either the start or end of a string.


Trim Functions Use and Examples

  • LTrim removes spaces from the left of a string
  • RTrim removes spaces from the right of a string
  • Trim removes spaces from the left and right of a string
Sub TrimStr()

    Dim name As String
    name = "  John Smith  "

    ' Prints "John Smith  "
    Debug.Print LTrim(name)
    ' Prints "  John Smith"
    Debug.Print RTrim(name)
    ' Prints "John Smith"
    Debug.Print Trim(name)

End Sub

Go back to menu


Length of a String

LenstringReturns length of stringLen ("John Smith")

Len is a simple function when used with a string. It simply returns the number of characters the string contains. If used with a numeric type such as long it will return the number of bytes.

Sub GetLen()

    Dim name As String
    name = "John Smith"

    ' Prints 10
    Debug.Print Len("John Smith")
    ' Prints 3
    Debug.Print Len("ABC")

    ' Prints 4 as Long is 4 bytes in size
    Dim total As Long
    Debug.Print Len(total)

End Sub

Go back to menu


Reversing a String

StrReversestringReverses a stringStrReverse ("John Smith")

StrReverse is another easy-to-use function. It simply returns the given string with the characters reversed.

Sub RevStr()

    Dim s As String
    s = "Jane Smith"
    ' Prints: htimS enaJ
    Debug.Print StrReverse(s)

End Sub

Go back to menu


Comparing Strings

StrCompstring1, string2Compares 2 stringsStrComp ("John", "John")

The function StrComp is used to compare two strings. The following subsections describe how it is used.


Description of Parameters

StrComp()  String1, String2, Compare[Optional]

  • String1 As String: The first string to compare
  • String2 As String: The second string to compare
  • Compare As vbCompareMethod : See the section on Compare above for more details


StrComp Return Values

Return ValueDescription
0Strings match
-1string1 less than string2
1string1 greater than string2
Nullif either string is null


Use and Examples

The following are some examples of using the StrComp function

Sub UsingStrComp()

   ' Returns 0
   Debug.Print StrComp("ABC", "ABC", vbTextCompare)
   ' Returns 1
   Debug.Print StrComp("ABCD", "ABC", vbTextCompare)
   ' Returns -1
   Debug.Print StrComp("ABC", "ABCD", vbTextCompare)
   ' Returns Null
   Debug.Print StrComp(Null, "ABCD", vbTextCompare)

End Sub


Compare Strings using Operators

You can also use the equals sign to compare strings. The difference between the equals comparison and the StrComp function are:

  1. The equals sign returns only true or false.
  2. You cannot specify a Compare parameter using the equal sign – it uses the “Option Compare” setting.

The following shows some examples of using equals to compare strings

Option Compare Text

Sub CompareUsingEquals()

    ' Returns true
    Debug.Print "ABC" = "ABC"
    ' Returns true because "Compare Text" is set above
    Debug.Print "ABC" = "abc"
    ' Returns false
    Debug.Print "ABCD" = "ABC"
    ' Returns false
    Debug.Print "ABC" = "ABCD"
    ' Returns null
    Debug.Print Null = "ABCD"

End Sub

The Operator “<>” means “does not equal”. It is essentially the opposite of using the equals sign as the following code shows

Option Compare Text

Sub CompareWithNotEqual()

    ' Returns false
    Debug.Print "ABC" <> "ABC"
    ' Returns true because "Compare Text" is set above
    Debug.Print "ABC" <> "abc"
    ' Returns true
    Debug.Print "ABCD" <> "ABC"
    ' Returns true
    Debug.Print "ABC" <> "ABCD"
    ' Returns null
    Debug.Print Null <> "ABCD"

End Sub

Go back to menu


Comparing Strings using Pattern Matching

Likestring, string patternchecks if string has the given pattern"abX" Like "??X"
"54abc5" Like "*abc#"


?Any single char
#Any single digit(0-9)
*zero or more characters
[charlist]Any char in the list
[!charlist]Any char not in the char list

Pattern matching is used to determine if a string has a particular pattern of characters. For example, you may want to check that a customer number has 3 digits followed by 3 alphabetic characters or a string has the letters XX followed by any number of characters.

If the string matches the pattern then the return value is true, otherwise it is false.

Pattern matching is similar to the VBA Format function in that there are almost infinite ways to use it. In this section I am going to give some examples that will explain how it works. This should cover the most common uses. If you need more information about pattern matching you can refer to the MSDN Page for the Like operator.

Lets have a look at a basic example using the tokens. Take the following pattern string


Let’s look at how this string works
[abc] a character that is either a,b or c
[!def] a character that is not d,e or f
? any character
# any digit
X the character X
* followed by zero or more characters

Therefore the following string is valid

a is one of abc
p is not one of the characters d, e or f
Y is any character
6 is a digit
X is the letter X

The following code examples show the results of various strings with this pattern

Sub Patterns()

    ' True
    Debug.Print 1; "apY6X" Like "[abc][!def]?#X*"
    ' True - any combination of chars after x is valid
    Debug.Print 2; "apY6Xsf34FAD" Like "[abc][!def]?#X*"
    ' False - char d not in [abc]
    Debug.Print 3; "dpY6X" Like "[abc][!def]?#X*"
    ' False - 2nd char e is in [def]
    Debug.Print 4; "aeY6X" Like "[abc][!def]?#X*"
    ' False - A at position 4 is not a digit
    Debug.Print 5; "apYAX" Like "[abc][!def]?#X*"
    ' False - char at position 5 must be X
    Debug.Print 1; "apY6Z" Like "[abc][!def]?#X*"

End Sub


Real-World Example of Pattern Matching

To see a real-world example of using pattern matching check out Example 3: Check if a filename is valid.


Important Note on VBA Pattern Matching

The Like operator uses either Binary or Text comparison based on the Option Compare setting. Please see the section on Compare above for more details.

Go back to menu


Replace Part of a String

Replacestring, find, replace,
start, count, compare
Replaces a substring with a substringReplace ("Jon","n","hn")

Replace is used to replace a substring in a string by another substring. It replaces all instances of the substring that are found by default.


Replace Description of Parameters

Replace()  Expression, Find, Replace, Start[Optional], Count[Optional], Compare[Optional]

  • Expression As String: The string to replace chars in
  • Find As String: The substring to replace in the Expression string
  • Replace As String: The string to replace the Find substring with
  • Start As Long[Optional – Default is 1]: The start position in the string
  • Count As Long[Optional – Default is -1]: The number of substitutions to make. The default -1 means all.
  • Compare As vbCompareMethod : See the section on Compare above for more details


Use and Examples

The following code shows some examples of using the Replace function

Sub ReplaceExamples()

    ' Replaces all the question marks with(?) with semi colons(;)
    Debug.Print Replace("A?B?C?D?E", "?", ";")
    ' Replace Smith with Jones
    Debug.Print Replace("Peter Smith,Ann Smith", "Smith", "Jones")
    ' Replace AX with AB
    Debug.Print Replace("ACD AXC BAX", "AX", "AB")

End Sub

Peter Jones,Sophia Jones

In the following examples we use the Count optional parameter. Count determines the number of substitutions to make. So for example, setting Count equal to one means that only the first occurrence will be replaced.

Sub ReplaceCount()

    ' Replaces first question mark only
    Debug.Print Replace("A?B?C?D?E", "?", ";", Count:=1)
    ' Replaces first three question marks
    Debug.Print Replace("A?B?C?D?E", "?", ";", Count:=3)

End Sub


The Start optional parameter allow you to return part of a string. The position you specify using Start is where it starts returning the string from. It will not return any part of the string before this position whether a replace was made or not.

Sub ReplacePartial()

    ' Use original string from position 4
    Debug.Print Replace("A?B?C?D?E", "?", ";", Start:=4)
    ' Use original string from position 8
    Debug.Print Replace("AA?B?C?D?E", "?", ";", Start:=8)
    ' No item replaced but still only returns last 2 characters
    Debug.Print Replace("ABCD", "X", "Y", Start:=3)

End Sub


Sometimes you may only want to replace only upper or lower case letters. You can use the Compare parameter to do this. This is used in a lot of string functions.  For more information on this check out the Compare section above.

Sub ReplaceCase()

    ' Replace capital A's only
    Debug.Print Replace("AaAa", "A", "X", Compare:=vbBinaryCompare)
    ' Replace All A's
    Debug.Print Replace("AaAa", "A", "X", Compare:=vbTextCompare)

End Sub



Multiple Replaces

If you want to replace multiple values in a string you can nest the calls. In the following code we want to replace X and Y with A and B respectively.

Sub ReplaceMulti()

    Dim newString As String

    ' Replace A with X
    newString = Replace("ABCD ABDN", "A", "X")
    ' Now replace B with Y in new string
    newString = Replace(newString, "B", "Y")

    Debug.Print newString

End Sub

In the next example we will change the above code to perform the same task. We will use the return value of the first replace as the argument for the second replace.

Sub ReplaceMultiNested()

    Dim newString As String

    ' Replace A with X and B with Y
    newString = Replace(Replace("ABCD ABDN", "A", "X"), "B", "Y")

    Debug.Print newString

End Sub

The result of both of these Subs is

Go back to menu


Convert Types to String(Basic)

This section is about converting numbers to a string. A very important point here is that most the time VBA will automatically convert to a string for you. Let’s look at some examples

Sub AutoConverts()

    Dim s As String
    ' Automatically converts number to string
    s = 12.99
    Debug.Print s

    ' Automatically converts multiple numbers to string
    s = "ABC" & 6 & 12.99
    Debug.Print s

    ' Automatically converts double variable to string
    Dim d As Double, l As Long
    d = 19.99
    l = 55
    s = "Values are " & d & " " & l
    Debug.Print s

End Sub

When you run the above code you can see that the number were automatically converted to strings. So when you assign a value to a string VBA will look after the conversion for you most of the time. There are conversion functions in VBA and in the following sub sections we will look at the reasons for using them.


Explicit Conversion

CStrexpressionConverts a number variable to a stringCStr ("45.78")
StrnumberConverts a number variable to a stringStr ("45.78")

In certain cases you may want to convert an item to a string without have to place it in a string variable first. In this case you can use the Str or CStr functions. Both take an  expression as a function and this can be any type such as long, double, data or boolean.

Let’s look at a simple example. Imagine you are reading a list of values from different types of cells to a collection. You can use the Str/CStr functions to ensure they are all stored as strings. The following code shows an example of this

Sub UseStr()

    Dim coll As New Collection
    Dim c As Range

    ' Read cell values to collection
    For Each c In Range("A1:A10")
        ' Use Str to convert cell value to a string
        coll.Add Str(c)

    ' Print out the collection values and type
    Dim i As Variant
    For Each i In coll
        Debug.Print i, TypeName(i)

End Sub

In the above example we use Str to convert the value of the cell to a string. The alternative to this would be to assign the value to a string and then assigning the string to the collection. So you can see that using Str here is much more efficient.


Multi Region

The difference between the Str and CStr functions is that CStr converts based on the region. If your macros will be used in multiple regions then you will need to use CStr for you string conversions.

It is good practise to use CStr when reading values from cells. If your code ends up being used in another region then you will not have to make any changes to make it work correctly.

Go back to menu


Convert String to Number- CLng, CDbl, Val etc.

CBoolBooleanCBool("True"), CBool("0")
CLngLong IntegerCLng("45.78")

The above functions are used to convert strings to various types. If you are assigning to a variable of this type then VBA will do the conversion automatically.

Sub StrToNumeric()

    Dim l As Long, d As Double, c As Currency
    Dim s As String
    s = "45.923239"

    l = s
    d = s
    c = s

    Debug.Print "Long is "; l
    Debug.Print "Double is "; d
    Debug.Print "Currency is "; c

End Sub

Using the conversion types gives more flexibility. It means you can determine the type at runtime. In the following code we set the type based on the sType argument passed to the PrintValue function. As this type can be read from an external source such as a cell, we can set the type at runtime. If we declare a variable as Long then it will always be long when the code runs.

Sub Test()
    ' Prints  46
    PrintValue "45.56", "Long"
    ' Print 45.56
    PrintValue "45.56", ""
End Sub

Sub PrintValue(ByVal s As String, ByVal sType As String)

    Dim value

    ' Set the data type based on a type string
    If sType = "Long" Then
        value = CLng(s)
        value = CDbl(s)
    End If
    Debug.Print "Type is "; TypeName(value); value

End Sub

If a string is not a valid number(i.e. contains symbols other numeric) then you get a “Type Mismatch” error.

Sub InvalidNumber()

    Dim l As Long

    ' Will give type mismatch error
    l = CLng("45A")

End Sub


The Val Function

The value function convert numeric parts of a string to the correct number type.

The Val function converts the first numbers it meets. Once it meets letters in a string it stops. If there are only letters then it returns zero as the value. The following code shows some examples of using Val

Sub UseVal()

    ' Prints 45
    Debug.Print Val("45 New Street")

    ' Prints 45
    Debug.Print Val("    45 New Street")

    ' Prints 0
    Debug.Print Val("New Street 45")

    ' Prints 12
    Debug.Print Val("12 f 34")

End Sub

The Val function has two disadvantages

1. Not Multi-Region – Val does not recognise international versions of numbers such as using commas instead of decimals. Therefore you should use the above conversion functions when you application will be used in multiple regions.

2. Converts invalid strings to zero – This may be okay in some instances but in most cases it is better if an invalid string raises an error. The application is then aware there is a problem and can act accordingly. The conversion functions such as CLng will raise an error if the string contains non-numeric characters.

Go back to menu


Generate a String of items – String Function

Stringnumber, characterConverts a number variable to a stringString (5,"*")

The String function is used to generate a string of repeated characters. The first argument is the number of times to repeat it, the second argument is the character.

Sub GenString()

    ' Prints: AAAAA
    Debug.Print String(5, "A")
    ' Prints: >>>>>
    Debug.Print String(5, 62)
    ' Prints: (((ABC)))
    Debug.Print String(3, "(") & "ABC" & String(3, ")")

End Sub

Go back to menu


Convert Case/Unicode – StrConv, UCase, LCase

StrConvstring, conversion, LCIDConverts a StringStrConv("abc",vbUpperCase)

If you want to convert the case of a string to upper or lower you can use the UCase and LCase functions for upper and lower respectively. You can also use the StrConv function with the vbUpperCase or vbLowerCase argument. The following code shows example of using these three functions

Sub ConvCase()

    Dim s As String
    s = "Mary had a little lamb"

    ' Upper
    Debug.Print UCase(s)
    Debug.Print StrConv(s, vbUpperCase)

    ' Lower
    Debug.Print LCase(s)
    Debug.Print StrConv(s, vbLowerCase)

    ' Sets the first letter of each word to upper case
    Debug.Print StrConv(s, vbProperCase)

End Sub

mary had a little lamb
mary had a little lamb
Mary Had A Little Lamb


Other Conversions

As well as case the StrConv can perform other conversions based on the Conversion parameter. The following table shows a list of the different parameter values and what they do. For more information on StrConv check out the MSDN Page.


vbUpperCase1to upper case
vbLowerCase2to lower case
vbProperCase3first letter of each word to uppercase
vbWide*4from Narrow to Wide
vbNarrow*8from Wide to Narrow
vbKatakana**16from Hiragana to Katakana
vbHiragana32from Katakana to Hiragana
vbUnicode64to unicode
vbFromUnicode128from unicode

Go back to menu


Using Strings With Arrays

Splitexpression, delimiter,
limit, compare
Parses a delimited string to an arrayarr = Split("A;B;C",";")
Joinsource array, delimiterConverts a one dimensional array to a strings = Join(Arr, ";")


String to Array using Split

You can easily parse a delimited string into an array. You simply use the Split function with the delimiter as parameter. The following code shows an example of using the Split function.

Sub StrToArr()

    Dim arr() As String
    ' Parse string to array
    arr = Split("John,Jane,Paul,Sophie", ",")

    Dim name As Variant
    For Each name In arr
        Debug.Print name

End Sub


If you would like to see some real world examples of using Split, you will find them in the post How to Easily Extract From Any String Without Using VBA InStr.


Array to String using Join

If you want to build a string from an array you can do so easily using the Join function. This is essentially a reverse of the Split function. The following code provides an example of using Join

Sub ArrToStr()

    Dim Arr(0 To 3) As String
    Arr(0) = "John"
    Arr(1) = "Jane"
    Arr(2) = "Paul"
    Arr(3) = "Sophie"

    ' Build string from array
    Dim sNames As String
    sNames = Join(Arr, ",")

    Debug.Print sNames

End Sub


Go back to menu


Formatting a String

Formatexpression, format,
firstdayofweek, firstweekofyear
Formats a string Format(0.5, "0.00%")

The Format function is used to format a string based on given instructions. It is mostly used to place a date or number in certain format. The examples below show the most common ways you would format a date.

Sub FormatDate()

    Dim s As String
    s = "31/12/2015 10:15:45"

    ' Prints: 31 12 15
    Debug.Print Format(s, "DD MM YY")
    ' Prints: Thu 31 Dec 2015
    Debug.Print Format(s, "DDD DD MMM YYYY")
    ' Prints: Thursday 31 December 2015
    Debug.Print Format(s, "DDDD DD MMMM YYYY")
    ' Prints: 10:15
    Debug.Print Format(s, "HH:MM")
    ' Prints: 10:15:45 AM
    Debug.Print Format(s, "HH:MM:SS AM/PM")

End Sub

The following examples are some common ways of formatting numbers

Sub FormatNumbers()

    ' Prints: 50.00%
    Debug.Print Format(0.5, "0.00%")
    ' Prints: 023.45
    Debug.Print Format(23.45, "00#.00")
    ' Prints: 23,000
    Debug.Print Format(23000, "##,000")
    ' Prints: 023,000
    Debug.Print Format(23000, "0##,000")
    ' Prints: $23.99
    Debug.Print Format(23.99, "$#0.00")

End Sub

The Format function is quite a large topic and could use up a full post on it’s own. If you want more information then the MSDN Format Page provides a lot of information.


Helpful Tip for Using Format

A quick way to figure out the formatting to use is by using the cell formatting on an Excel worksheet. For example add a number to a cell. Then  right click and format the cell the way you require. When you are happy with the format select Custom from the category listbox on the left.  When you select this you can see the format string in the type textbox(see image below). This is the string format you can use in VBA.

VBA Format Function

Format Cells Dialog

Go back to menu



In almost any type of programming, you will spend a great deal of time manipulating strings. This post covers the many different ways you use strings in VBA.

To get the most from use the table at the top to find the type of function you wish to use. Clicking on the left column of this function will bring you to that section.

If you are new to strings in VBA, then I suggest you check out the Read this First section before using any of the functions.

Please feel free to subscribe to my newsletter and get exclusive VBA content that you cannot find here on the blog, as well as free access to my eBook, How to Ace the 21 Most Common Questions in VBA which is full of examples you can use in your own code.

Free VBA eBook



  1. Awesome post. Great to have all this information in one place. I wasn’t aware that VBA had pattern matching. I guess I learned something new today:-)

  2. Keep up the good work Paul! Your posts are incredibly simple, easy to follow and yet contains lots of useful stuff!! Hats off to you!Please keep posting!!!

  3. super
    I am running out of words to appreciate your efforts/pain taken by you.
    you are a very very good teacher

  4. Awesome. I gained tremmendous knowledge. This weekend, I am going to go through each and every page of your blog.

  5. You truly do posses in-depth knowledge of VBA. I can only say you are great at it!

    Please what are the commercial benefits of knowing VBA or how can it be commercialized?

    Thank you

  6. Marvelous blog…. hats off to you.. Keep posting…

    thank you for your valuable time for writing valuable information and sharing the knowledge you earned through untiring efforts..

  7. This is awesome. I first encountered Paul on Udemy and wish I had come across him many years earlier. I have learned more about VBA than I could have imagined. After completing the Udemy course I purchase Modules 1 and 2 of His VBA Handbook and completed the exercises. I since acquired his book “Excel Macro Mastery – How You Can Write VBA Like a Professional in 15 Simple Steps” and am working through the chapters. This Blog is perhaps the most valuable VBA resource that is available and I cannot thank Paul enough for making it freely available. Thanks heaps Paul

  8. Such an amazing website ! Thank you so much for your time & efforts for knowledge sharing. There is plenty of new things for me to learn here … New page added to my favorites. Will definitely be reading/learning a lot in your page

    Keep up the good

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *